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The flora of the Bükk

The flora of the Bükk National Park is very rich and diverse, it is rightly deserves protection and attention. There are approximately 2500 vascular plants in Hungary, 1500 of them can be found also in the Bükk National Park. 500 plants are protected in Hungary and more than 200 live in the Bükk National Park.

The presence of various plants and associations is due to several factors, thus the geological characteristics, the bedrock, the special types of soil, the climate and the usage of the land. Due to the differences in height, there are special floral zones in the Bükk National Park. While several eastern plants (like yellow pheasant's eye, paque flower, amygdala) live at the foothills, in the plateau and the northern edge of the Bükk we can find relict montane plant species (like yellow wood violet, Alpine clamatis, hemerocallis) which live only here in Hungary. The relict plant species which lived in very small areas, got used to the changed circumstances and became independent native species. There are two special, native plant species in Bükk National Park, the strictly protected Vrabélyi hesperis and Hungarian hare's-tail grass.

The most common plant associations are the zonal, closed forests, with Austrian oak-oak woods in the lower zones followed by hornbeam and then beech-groves. There are other tree associations different from the before mentioned zonal forests, regarding both their species and their appearance. The difference is due to the extreme habitats, like steep slopes or rocks. These natural values of these habitats exceed those of the zonal forests. Such forest associations can be found on the dry southern slopes of the mountains, (karst bush-forests, oak woods) usually with open steppe-fields and rock-lawns, rocky grasslands while the northern, cool ravine- and rock forests abound in rock-lawns with hare's-tail grass and shrubberies rich in relict plant species. As a result of earlier human interference several valuable plant associations could develop, their presence also depends on the natural agricultural activity of man. The extensive, chemicals-free gardens and orchards of the hill-foot, as well as the montane hayfield meadows of the Bükk-Plateau belong to these associations.

Utolsó módosítás: 2014. október 28., 11:42